Around 1406, when Mircea the Elder reached Tismana at the Venerable Nicodemus, Abbot of the Holy Monastery, the Prince was signing a document attesting for the first time the existence of the village. Among those present at the signing were “all the abbots of the monasteries and nobles of my reign. Also the patron Brata should mark off, because it was also a county of Jiu “.
In 1597, during the reign of Michael the Brave, Targu-Jiu is already mentioned as a city. Its inhabitants are diversifying their occupations and during the XVIII – XIX centuries, churches and stately buildings are built here, belonging to noblemen and officials with important state functions: governor Cornea Brailoiu, bookkeeper Vasile Monaga, friend of Tudor Vladimirescu, commander in chief Dumitru Maldarescu, butler Ganescu Barbu and others.
The city and its people occupy entire written pages in Romanian history, through the Leader of the Revolution of 1821, Tudor Vladimirescu and his captains of Pandurs – Buzesti Brothers, then Gheorghe Magheru and Christian Tell, the leaders of the 1848 Revolution and, later, in World War I, through “the heroine of the Jiu” Ecaterina Teodoroiu.
Benefiting from an asceding economic development, Targu-Jiu attracts known politicians and intellectuals, and especially provides a suitable framework for the development of arts. From the capital of Gorj, several citizens went on to occupying important governing positions in the country: Constantin Savoiu, Grigore Iunian, Titu Frumusanu, Vasile Lascar, Nicolae Hasnas.
Targu Jiu boasts with several premiering cultural initiatives: the first school magazine in the Kingdom – Youth’s Friend “Amicul Tinerimii” (released at the Tudor Vladimirescu Gymnasium in 1895), the first theater in the county, in 1834, the first printing press in the county, owned by Nicu D. Milosescu, and the founder of the Romanian artistic lithography, Witold Rolla Piekarski.
In addition to these, there are also other actions at county level: the first cultural circles and cooperative movement – New Enlightenment, started in Gorj and then generalized throughout the kingdom, at the end of the XIX century, the first publishing house in a village – Ram, from the village Aninoasa. It also established numerous cultural and educational institutions: Theatre Milescu, Romanian Theatre of Targu Jiu, media and cultural information, printing, publishing, secondary schools, “Tudor Vladimirescu” Gymnasium, Gorj Museum, School of Ceramic, Philharmonic Society “Lyra Gorjului”, public library, society and cultural foundations, Theater-cinema Caldaruse.
Such development of the arts has naturally led to the emergence of famous personalities who have left their mark on the cultural life of Targu-Jiu: Iosif Keber in painting, Jullius Doppelreiter in architecture, in theater and opera Aristizza Romanescu, Elena Theodorini and Elvira Godeanu, who devoted themselves on the major stages of the country and the world, later Sergiu Nicolaescu, and in folk music, Maria Tanase and Maria Lataretu.
Geography Târgu Jiu
Târgu Jiu is situated at the crossroads of parallel 45° north latitude with the meridian 23° east longitude, halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, in a temperate zone. Located around 18 km southwards away from the Carpathian chain, in The Getic Hill, in Târgu-Jiu-Cîmpu-Mare depression or The Depression of Oltenia (one of the largest Carpathian depressions), on the north side of the confluence of The Amaradia Pietroasã River with The Jiu River. The town stretches from north to south for 13 km and from east to west for 10 km.
- North- Stãneşti and Turcineşti Communes and Bumbeşti-Jiu (Sadu) Town
- East – Bãlãneşti and Scoarţa Communes
- South – Dãneşti and Drãguţeşti Communes
- West – Bãleşi and Leleşti Communes
It is a temperate continental climate, with 190 frost-free days, with precipitation not uniformly distributed, with dominant wind from the north, on The Jiu Valley. The air temperature varies widely because of the differences in elevation. Annual averages are of 10.2 °C in Tãrgu-Jiu, about 3 °C in depression and in the mountains with medium altitudes and 0°C or below 0°C on high mountains.